RACC Undergraduate Internships




2014 Research Project Descriptions

Johnson State College in Johnson, VT
01- Microbial Source Tracking and Water Quality in Tributaries of the Lamoille River
02- Microclimate Evaluation
Saint Michael’s College in Colchester, VT
03- Storm Chasers: Effects of Storms on Suspended Sediments in Streams
University of Vermont in Burlington, VT
04- The Chemistry of Lake Champlain Sediments
05- Resource Limitation and Warning Signals of Harmful Algal Blooms in Lake Champlain
06- Linking Nutrient Dynamics to Food Webs in a Eutrophic System
07- Soil Nutrients in Lake Champlain Stream Corridors
08- Mountain Hydrology and Water Quality
09- Field Validation of Watershed Models
10- Streambank Stability
11- Quantifying Climate Variability and Change via Statistical, Geospatial and Modeling Techniques
12- Water Quality Analysis for UVM Bioretention Laboratory
13- Northern Forest Mesocosm (NForM) Climate Change Experiment: Sustaining Forest Health and Function in a Warming World
14- Vermont Agricultural Resilience in a Changing Climate
15- Impacts of Lake Champlain Water Quality on Vermont's Economy, Ecology and Society
16- Water Quality Regulation and Enforcement
17- Effectiveness of Agriculture & Urban Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in Mitigating Nutrient Loads
18- Categorization of Vermont Large Farm Status
19- Agricultural and Act 250 Permit Processes Description and Assessment
Middlebury College in Middlebury, VT
20- Bottom Bathymetry and Circulation Dynamics in Missisquoi Bay


Johnson State College in Johnson, VT

      Project Code: 01
      Title: Microbial Source Tracking and Water Quality in Tributaries of the Lamoille River
      Co-mentors:
      Robert Genter, Environmental & Health Sciences (Community Ecology, Toxicology, Hazard Assessment)
      Saul Blocher, Environmental & Health Sciences (Water Quality)
      Research Description: Under the guidance of Professor Bob Genter at Johnson State College, students will monitor 19 stream sites in the Lamoille River basin for sources of E. coli from warm-blooded animals and for nutrient concentrations. E. coli are identified with a genetic “bar code” method called ribotyping. Interns will work in both the field and laboratory setting. Students should have completed introductory biology and chemistry and be rising sophomores or higher standing. Upper level courses in limnology, microbiology, or the equivalent, are recommended.
      Research Questions:
      1) Which warm-blooded animals are the primary sources of E. coli to streams in the Lamoille basin?; 2) Are the animal sources of E. coli related to land-use practices?; 3) Is the chemical quality (different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus) of streams in the Lamoille basin related to land-use practices?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Analysis of nutrient concentrations in stream water; 2) Apply a molecular-biology method in assessing an ecological pollution question; and 3) Demonstrate adeptness in preparing and conducting field and laboratory research.

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      Project Code: 02
      Title: Microclimate Evaluation
      Mentor: Tania Bacchus, Environmental & Health Sciences (Meteorology and Climatology)
      Research Description: My research focuses on a comparison of weather data (primarily temperature and precipitation statistics) for stations across the northern tier of Vermont to assess trends in weather patterns and ultimately climate patterns. So far I have been comparing monthly/seasonal/yearly data from 2000 to present from the Burlington International Airport (BTV) weather station, the Morrisville-Stowe Airport (MVL) weather station and our Johnson State College (JSC) weather station. This upcoming summer I would like to extend this same type of monthly/seasonal/yearly comparisons to include a fourth station - the St. Johnsbury (Fairbanks Museum) station.
      Research Questions:
      1) How does the weather data from the St. Johnsbury station differ from the other three stations already analyzed?; 2) How does the weather on the eastern side of the state vary with respect to the western side of the state and what are the reason for any variations.
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Using recent/current weather patterns and trends from multiple weather stations (and microclimates) to assess regional/local climate change.

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Saint Michael’s College in Colchester, VT

      Project Code: 03
      Title: Storm Chasers- Effects of Storms on Suspended Sediments in Streams
      Co-mentors:
      Katie Chang, Laboratory Technician (Water Quality)
      Declan McCabe, Biology Department (Community Ecology and Water Chemistry)
      Research Description: Under the direction of the Laboratory Technician, interns will help in the collection, analysis, and evaluation of water quality in the Missisquoi and Winooski watersheds. Field work will involve regular visits to established sites where automated equipment collect stream samples. This will ultimately help RACC researchers understand the transport of nutrients and sediment over the watersheds, data to be included in Vermont climate change models. In the lab, interns will be trained in basic laboratory procedures, safety, and water quality assays. (This will include analysis for suspended sediment and acid washing). Other techniques and concepts in water quality sampling and stream ecology will also be covered. Interns will also have the opportunity to assist in the training of high school students.
      Research Questions:
      1) How do storms impact sites of differing land use and size? 2) How do nutrients and TSS change during a storm event? 3) How are nutrients and sediment transported over a watershed during spring runoff and in other seasons?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Water quality sampling techniques; 2) Laboratory practices including: lab safety, water quality analyses, and QAQC protocols; and 3) Experimental design and analysis.

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University of Vermont in Burlington, VT

      Project Code: 04
      Title: The Chemistry of Lake Champlain Sediments
      Co-mentors:
      Andrew Schroth, Department of Geology (Lake and Watershed Biogeochemistry)
      Courtney Giles, Postdoctoral Fellow (Lake and Watershed Biogeochemistry)
      Yaoyang Xu, Postdoctoral Fellow (Lake Biogeochemistry)
      Peter Isles, PhD Student (Lake Biogeochmeistry)
      Research Description: Lake sediments represent an important source of phosphorus to over-lying water, which may contribute to the development of harmful algal blooms in Lake Champlain. Students will contribute to geochemical studies of sediment P and metals transformations, which will be used to elucidate times of the year and locations in Missisquoi Bay for which the internal loading of P from sediments is the greatest. In conjunction with nutrient dynamics and algal bloom studies, this research seeks to identify the sediment geochemical conditions that control the development of harmful algal blooms and water quality deterioration. Students will participate in field collections of sediment cores in Missisquoi Bay and learn laboratory techniques in sediment processing and analysis for P and metals. Students should be interested in environmental chemistry, geology, or limnology. Well-organized individuals with experience in data management and geospatial analysis are encouraged to apply.
      Research Questions:
      1) When is the potential for internal loading of P from sediments the greatest? 2) Where in Missisquoi Bay is the contribution of P from sediments the greatest? 3) Can isotopic methods for phosphate be used to identify internal and external sources of P to Missisquoi Bay? 4) What is the relationship between sediment geochemistry and algal bloom dynamics in Missisquoi Bay?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Learn environmental sampling techniques for sediments and water; 2) Learn laboratory methods for sediment P and metals analysis; 3) Maintain organized laboratory notebooks and data files; 4) Presentation of project description, progress, and results throughout the internship period.

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      Project Code: 05
      Title: Resource Limitation and Warning Signals of Harmful Algal Blooms in Lake Champlain
      Co-mentors:
      Andrew Schroth, Department of Geology (Aquatic geochemistry)
      Jason Stockwell, Rubenstein School (Aquatic ecology, food web dynamics)
      Peter Isles, PhD Student (Lake Biogeochmeistry)
      Yaoyang Xu, Postdoctoral Fellow (Lake Biogeochemistry)
      Research Description: Students will work with a multidisciplinary team of researchers at UVM examining the temporal and spatial dynamics of phytoplankton abundance and composition in relation to various limiting resources (phosphorus, nitrogen, light, and temperature). Field work will include maintenance of a biogeochemical monitoring buoy moored in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain; collection of weekly water samples; and periodic spatial data collection using sensors and water samplers. Lab work will take place at the Rubenstein Ecosystem Science Laboratory, and duties will involve maintenance and calibration of advanced aquatic sensors, nutrient assays using a variety of instruments, preparations for field excursions, and data analysis. Students will work cooperatively with a team of RACC interns studying related questions.
      Research Questions:
      1) What are the resources limiting primary production in Missisquoi bay over the course of the summer? 2) What are the sources of nutrients to the water column? 3) How much variability exists in spatial distribution of phytoplankton and nutrients in Missisquoi Bay, and what drives this variability? 4) How do differences in the physical and chemical environment alter phytoplankton community composition? 5) How to use models for detecting and predicting catastrophic shifts in aquatic ecosystems?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Field sampling design and implementation; 2) Lab analysis of nutrient and phytoplankton; 3) Complex modeling of ecosystem behavior.

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      Project Code: 06
      Title: Linking Nutrient Dynamics to Food Webs in a Eutrophic System
      Co-mentors:
      Jason Stockwell, Rubenstein School (Aquatic Ecology, Food Web & Nutrient Dynamics)
      Trevor Gearhart, PhD Student (Aquatic Ecology)
      Peter Isles, PhD Student (Lake Biogeochmeistry)
      Research Description: Students will work with an interdisciplinary team of professors and graduate students examining how nutrient dynamics affect algal blooms in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain, and how these dynamics propagate up the food web to invertebrates and fish. Fieldwork will include sampling for phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic invertebrates and fish. Lab work will include processing of biological samples, species Identification, and biochemistry techniques. Interns will also have the opportunity to interact and participate with other aspects of the RACC research project.
      Research Questions:
      1) How do blue-green algal blooms affect the lipid and fatty acid dynamics in native and invasive fishes? 2) Do benthic invertebrates have a significant impact on nutrient recycling in Lake Champlain via bioturbation? 3) What are the seasonal trends in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Experimental design and analysis; 2) Survey design and methodology; and 3) Laboratory analysis.

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      Project Code: 07
      Title: Soil Nutrients in Lake Champlain Stream Corridors
      Co-mentors:
      Don Ross, Department of Plant and Soil Science (Soil Chemistry)
      Beverley Wemple, Geography Department (Hydrology)
      Research Description: Fieldwork will consist of sampling soils along stream corridors of the Missisquoi and Winooski watersheds to determine the gradient of phosphorus and nitrogen towards the stream banks and with depth in the soil profile. Laboratory work will consist of processing and analyzing these samples, and probably additional stream and lake sediment samples, for N, P and a suite of other parameters. This soils research will coordinate with other researchers investigating stream and lake processes.
      Research Questions:
      1) How does soil available phosphorus change with distance from the stream bank? 2) How does soil nitrate change with depth in the soil and distance from the stream?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Field: Soil sampling techniques and obtaining good GPS points; and 2) Lab: soil and sediment analytical techniques including operation of advanced analytical instruments such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES).

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      Project Code: 08
      Title: Mountain Hydrology and Water Quality
      Co-mentors:
      Beverley Wemple, Geography Department (Hydrology)
      Don Ross, Department of Plant and Soil Science (Soil Chemistry)
      Research Description: Students will participate in a project focusing on hydrology and water quality in upland and mountainous settings. This project seeks to quantify the role of rural transportation networks on water quality degradation. Students will participate in weekly field sampling, maintenance of field equipment, and laboratory analysis of water and sediment samples. Some lab and field experience are desirable. Experience with GIS would be beneficial but not required. Must be able and willing to lift heavy (40-50 lb) buckets of sediment and willing to get dirty on the job! Ideal for a geology, physical geography or environmental science/earth science student.

      Research Questions:
      1) How does landuse or landcover change influence the movement of water, sediment and nutrients through the landscape?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Field sampling; 2) Hydrologic measurement techniques; and 3) Laboratory analysis.).

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      Project Code: 09
      Title: Field Validation of Watershed Models
      Co-mentors:
      Arne Bomblies, Civil and Environmental Engineering (Hydrology)
      Jody Stryker, Civil and Environmental Engineering (Hydrology)
      Research Description: As part of a watershed modeling effort in the Mad River Valley, the summer research consists of field surveys of stream bank structure, vegetation, erosion and stream bed sediment along entire reaches of the main stem and tributaries. In addition, observations of stream networks will be used to validate computer-generated stream networks. The observations will be used to parameterize and validate computer models of the Mad River Valley watershed. This will involve much field work and some Geographic Information System (GIS) work.
      Research Questions:
      1) What are the associations of bank vegetation type and stream bank stability and structure? 2) How does bank structure and channel incision vary with elevation and stream order?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Application of geospatial techniques to hydrological/geomorphological data.

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      Project Code: 10
      Title: Streambank Stability
      Co-mentors:
      Mandar Dewoolkar, Civil and Env. Engineering (Hydrology, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
      Donna Rizzo, Civil and Env. Engineering (Hydrology, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
      Kristen Underwood, Civil and Environmental Engineering (Hydrology, Civil and Env. Engineering)
      Research Description:
      1) Use of terrestrial LiDAR to monitor and quantify streambank erosion.
      2) Field data collection and analysis of streambank soil properties (e.g. shear strength, erodibility, density) using in-situ and laboratory testing.
      Both projects involve some computer modeling.
      Research Questions:
      1) What is the contribution of streambank erosion to sediment loading in streams prior to and after storms?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Experimental design and analysis; 2) Survey design and methodology; and 3) Hydrologic measurement techniques, laboratory analysis, soil and sediment analytical techniques.

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      Project Code: 11
      Title: Quantifying Climate Variability and Change via Statistical, Geospatial and Modeling Techniques
      Mentor: Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux, Geography Department (Climatology)
      Research Description: We will use a variety of statistical, geospatial, modeling and/or computational techniques to quantify how Vermont's climate has changed. We will pay special attention to extreme hydrometeorological events such as floods and droughts, as well as severe weather such as winter storms and hurricanes.
      Research Questions:
      1) How has Vermont's climate changed and how can this inform future climate variations?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Use of statistical analyses of climate data; and 2) Application of geospatial techniques to climate data.

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      Project Code: 12
      Title: Water Quality Analysis for UVM Bioretention Laboratory
      Co-mentors:
      Stephanie Hurley, Plant and Soil Science (Stormwater Management & Landscape Design)
      Amanda Cording, Plant and Soil Science (Sustainable Landscape)
      Research Description: The University of Vermont Bioretention Laboratory is a site of ongoing research on the use of bioretention systems to absorb and treat stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces. Built in 2012 near a major visitor parking lot on the UVM Campus, this project serves as a public demonstration of bioretention “rain gardens” and is an example of environmental science research in action. Our research investigates the mechanisms influencing sediment and nutrient retention and greenhouse gas emissions within eight stormwater bioretention “cells.” Interns will participate in sampling and processing stormwater runoff inflow and outflow from the bioretention cells, honing their skills in the field and in the laboratory.
      Research Questions:
      1) How do bioretention cells perform in terms of retention of stormwater runoff, sediment and nutrient uptake? 2) Does plant biomass, nutrient uptake, or greenhouse gas concentrations in the soils vary between low diversity and high diversity vegetation treatments? 3) Does bioretention cell performance differ between cells subjected to ambient rainfall conditions and cells exposed to simulated precipitation increases expected due to climate change?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Stormwater runoff water quality and volume sampling and analysis techniques (indoor and outdoor); 2) Greenhouse gas sampling and analysis (indoor and outdoor); and 3) Literature review, data analysis, presentation of results.

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      Project Code: 13
      Title: Northern Forest Mesocosm (NForM) Climate Change Experiment: sustaining forest health and function in a warming world
      Co-mentors:
      Carol Adair, Rubenstein School (Ecosystem ecology, biogeochemistry, climate change)
      Ali Kosiba, Rubenstein School (Tree physiology, climate change)
      Stephanie Juice, Rubenstein School (Ecosystem ecology, climate change)
      Research Description: As temperatures rise, the ability of forests to maintain, gain, or loose carbon (C) and nutrients has important consequences for climate change mitigation, soil fertility and water quality. The goal of the NForM experiment is to identify the mechanisms driving forest C, nutrient and water balances and to quantify how warming-driven changes in these mechanisms will alter forest health and function using in-field forest mesocosms (small simulated forest watersheds).
      This work has direct relevance for determining the ability of temperate forests to maintain important ecosystem services such as C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) storage and retention and water purification as the climate warms. We will also examine how tree species currently near the northern or southern limits of their ranges will respond to warming. We will use gathered data to develop, test and compare C and nutrient process models that will allow us to better understand and predict the effect of climate change on temperate forests.
      Research Questions:
      1) How (and why) does a warming world impact forest carbon storage? 2) How (and why) does a warming world impact forest nutrient (N, P) retention? 3) How will a warming world change forest species composition?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Experimental design and analysis; 2) Tree physiology and fitness measurements; and 3) Soil, plant, microbial carbon and nutrient masurements.

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      Project Code: 14
      Title: Vermont Agricultural Resilience in a Changing Climate
      Co-mentors:
      Carol Adair, Rubenstein School (Climate Change Science)
      Tyler Goeschel, Rubenstein School (Biogeochemistry, Agriculture, Climate change)
      Research Description: This long-term, collaborative project seeks to work with farmers, agricultural service providers, researchers, and community organizations to address the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Vermont. The project focuses on evaluating and implementing on-farm climate change adaptation and mitigation practices. In partnership with farmers, we have identified "best management practices" for dealing with climate change, and are evaluating the economic and environmental impacts of these strategies. Our work also seeks to involve and inform state and federal policymakers.
      Research Questions:
      1) How do agricultural management practices affect carbon storage? 2) How do different agricultural management practices affect greenhouse gas emissions? 3) Can we work with farmers to lessen the effects of climate change?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Experimental design and analysis; 2) Soil carbon and greenhouse gas measurements; and 3) Basic spreadsheet use and preliminary data analysis.

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      Project Code: 15
      Title: Impacts of Lake Champlain Water Quality on Vermont's Economy, Ecology and Society
      Co-mentors:
      Christopher Koliba, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Public Administration and Policy)
      Asim Zia, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Policy, Governance & Adaptive Management)
      Richard Kujawa, Geography Department (Economics and Human Geography)
      Yu-shiou Tsai, Postdoctoral Fellow (Public Administration and Policy)
      Steve Scheinert, Postdoctoral Fellow (Modeling Governance Systems)
      Research Description: An important part of the feedback loop in determining policy formulation and content for water quality is the impact that decreasing quality can be expected to have on the actors and the system.
      Research Questions:
      1) How will tourists adjust behaviors in response to decreasing water quality? 2) How will tourist spending patterns change in response to changing behaviors? 3) What are the determinants of tourist spending in and around Burlington that relate to water quality?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Survey design and methodology; 2) Statistical/econometric modeling from surveys; and 3) Complex system component parts and relationships.

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      Project Code: 16
      Title: Water Quality Regulation and Enforcement
      Co-mentors:
      Christopher Koliba, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Public Administration and Policy)
      Asim Zia, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Policy, Governance & Adaptive Management)
      Richard Kujawa, Geography Department (Economics and Human Geography)
      Steve Scheinert, Postdoctoral Fellow (Modeling Governance Systems)
      Yu-shiou Tsai, Postdoctoral Fellow (Public Administration and Policy)
      Sarah Coleman, PhD Student
      Research Description: Vermont implements the majority of its water quality management efforts through voluntary programs. Nevertheless, regulation and its enforcement remain key pieces of the effort to manage water quality. To this end, Vermont continues to operate programs aimed at enforcing regulatory requirements on businesses and individuals. The operations of these programs are then an important piece of RACC’s effort to understand and model water quality governance in Vermont. This project will focus on supporting efforts to improve our understanding of how these programs operates and the impacts that they have. Interns working on this project will review, describe, and analyze regulations and regulatory enforcement decisions to identify patterns in identifying regulatory violations to prosecute and in the decisions made.
      Research Questions:
      1) What are the patterns in the application of water quality enforcement programs? 2) What are the patterns in how new regulations are adopted in Vermont?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Dataset design and maintenance; 2) Content analysis of regulations and regulatory judicial decisions; and 3) Data collection and coding (social science context).


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      Project Code: 17
      Title: Effectiveness of Agriculture & Urban Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in Mitigating Nutrient Loads
      Co-mentors:
      Christopher Koliba, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Public Administration and Policy)
      Asim Zia, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Policy, Governance & Adaptive Management)
      Richard Kujawa, Geography Department (Economics and Human Geography)
      Yu-shiou Tsai, Postdoctoral Fellow (Public Administration and Policy)
      Steve Scheinert, Postdoctoral Fellow (Modeling Governance Systems)
      Research Description: A large amount of public funds is appropriate for the implementation of various types of Best Management Practices (BMPs) aimed at mitigating nutrient loads into water-bodies. However, few studies have systematically quantified the effectiveness of these BMPs. This project aims to fill this gap by uncovering effectiveness magnitudes reported in a body of literature and then summarizing the effectiveness with meta-analysis.
      Research Questions:
      1) Which BMPs funded by the public are effective in mitigating nutrient loads?; 2) Which BMPs funded by the public are NOT effective in mitigating nutrient loads?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Data mining 2) Statistical modeling.


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      Project Code: 18
      Title: Categorization of Vermont Large Farm Status
      Co-mentors:
      Christopher Koliba, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Public Administration and Policy)
      Asim Zia, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Policy, Governance & Adaptive Management)
      Richard Kujawa, Geography Department (Economics and Human Geography)
      Yu-shiou Tsai, Postdoctoral Fellow (Public Administration and Policy)
      Steve Scheinert, Postdoctoral Fellow (Modeling Governance Systems)
      Research Description: We are interested in the decision-making processes of Vermont's large farms and how the decision making processes of the large farms are different from smaller farms. To understand the decision making by large farms, we plan to categorize the Vermont large farm permits housed in the Vermont Agency of Agriculture and then to analyze the categorized data to sort out the decision heuristics of the large farms.
      Research Questions:
      1) How are the decision making processes of Vermont large farms different from those of their smaller counterparts?; 2) What are the primary drivers for the decision making processes of Vermont large farms, and are these drivers different from those of their smaller counterparts?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Data mining 2) Statistical modeling.


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      Project Code: 19
      Title: Agricultural and Act 250 Permit Processes Description and Assessment
      Co-mentors:
      Christopher Koliba, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Public Administration and Policy)
      Asim Zia, Community Dev. and Applied Economics (Policy, Governance & Adaptive Management)
      Richard Kujawa, Geography Department (Economics and Human Geography)
      Steve Scheinert, Postdoctoral Fellow (Modeling Governance Systems)
      Yu-shiou Tsai, Postdoctoral Fellow (Public Administration and Policy)
      Sarah Coleman, PhD Student
      Research Description: Vermont manages development of towns and farms through a variety of mechanisms of permitting mechanisms, with particular reliance on the Act 250 process. This project will focus on the operation and interplay of the various permitting processes in operation in Vermont that are relevant to water quality management. This will be done by examining the separate processes, seeking ways that one process could be used to augment or circumvent another, and documenting current permit holdings, primarily by Vermont's Agency of Agriculture, Farms, and Markets, and assigned through the Act 250 development permitting process.
      Research Questions:
      1) Are there consistent variations between how the permit process is designed to work and how it does work?; 2) What is the current state of permit possession by agriculture and business?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Quantitative analysis of qualitative concepts and data; 2) Dataset design, construction, and maintenance.


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Middlebury College in Middlebury, VT

      Project Code: 20
      Title: Bottom Bathymetry and Circulation Dynamics in Missisquoi Bay
      Mentor: Thomas Manley, Geology Department (Hydrodynamics)
      Research Description: Continuing our efforts to better define the circulation dynamics within Missisquoi Bay using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, temperature sensors, as well as water level and atmospheric pressure sensors. Ten subsurface monitoring stations will be recovered off the bottom of the bay. Data will be downloaded from these instruments and then they will be redeployed. High-resolution bathymetric mapping using the newest multi-beam technology will be continued.
      Research Questions:
      1) What is the overall water circulation pattern in Missisquoi Bay?; 2) What is the overall bathymetric character of Missisquoi Bay?
      Student Learning Objectives:
      1) Field use and analysis of a) water velocity, water level and temperature equipment and b) multi-beam data for the production of a new bottom map of Missisquoi Bay.
      NOTE: Students must have a valid passport to work on this project since part of our field operations will be in Canada.


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Read the 2013 Research Project Descriptions to see the opportunities available during the summer of 2013.

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